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Epidemiology In Health Planning

September 4, 2011

Epidemiology In Health Planning

A. Epidemiology Science and Development
An understanding of epidemiology of the most commonly used are of MacMahon and Pugh (1970); Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease frequency in humans. The method used to describe the disease is considered as a prerequisite to identify the determinants of health and disease in humans.
Determinants based on the time associated with an increased / decreased over the years, seasonal variations, sudden changes of disease incidence. The first is from a biomedical perspective, especially seen from the etiology of the disease and the disease process itself. 

2. Picture of the natural history of disease that is the source of disease to improve diagnostic accuracy is a major issue in clinical epidemiology.

3. Investigating the genetic and physiological variables with the factors that influence the outcome of disease and to decide that whether it is potentially a risk factor, disease marker or indicator of early stage disease.

Clarification of disease transmission to control the spread of infectious diseases such as targeted vaccination programs.
A better understanding of genetic factors and their interactions with environmental factors and the causes of disease is a major challenge for future research.
Genetic epidemiology associated with genetic characteristics that are influenced by the environment to spread the disease to family members in a population. As an illustration, the relationship between cigarette smoke exposure on infant birth weight status in case-control study to measure the risk of exposure to cigarette smoke on the incidence of low birth weight babies.
Exposure to cigarette smoke is a state where pregnant women exposed to tobacco smoke from husbands at home. Various research has also proved the greater the risk of LBW incidence as increasing numbers of cigarettes smoked by the husband. The results are in line with the analysis of Misra and Nguyen (1998), and some previous research that exposure to cigarette smoke associated with birth weight, cigarette smoke exposure values ​​found in this research for OR. The presence of nicotine in cigarettes would reduce placental blood flow. Smoking can damage sperm, vitality and penis shrink. In addition to entry of blood vessels, cigarette smoke also inhibits blood flow.

B. Malaria Epidemiology role in mapping
One of the important role of epidemiology in infectious diseases is to study the spread of disease in the dimension of time, place and person characteristics. At this time I chose the subject of malaria, with consideration, this disease has a significant increasing trend over time in both incidence and case mortality rates. Malaria disease is generally transmitted through the bite of the malaria mosquito called Anopheles. 1. Maps Spatial / Regional Distribution of Malaria Cases
Map the spatial distribution of malaria cases is a picture of the area / geographic spread of malaria cases in the earth’s surface based on the location / coordinates of malaria cases with the use of a GPS (Global Positioning System). Based on the distribution map of malaria cases with GIS analysis, it can be seen an area of ​​the spread of malaria cases.
The results of our cases of malaria, can assist in determining the areas prone to malaria vector contact, community groups are also vulnerable as well as the identification tool of resource allocation in order to problem solving malaria.
Mapping of malaria cases with used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is more accurate and detailed to provide a clearer picture, adequate and accurate information on actual malaria situation in the field. Role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as tools that can assist and support the malaria control program, especially in case finding.
In general, the mapping of malaria had been popular like other diseases (Sine and Dale, 2003 in April 2007). Mapping of infectious diseases including malaria disease will provide three main contributions

(1) by using descriptive overview map is expected to appear on the distribution and spread of the disease. 2. Stratification of Malaria Cases . According to WHO, one of the benefits of using Geographic Information Systems in public health research is to conduct Stratification of cases / risk factors. Determination of priority handling and control of malaria cases based on the results of GIS analysis, will facilitate the achievement of one goal reduction and prevention of malaria in the short term or long term.

2. Malaria Case Based Spatial maps Altitude.
Specific environmental conditions can trigger a high incidence of the disease. Naturally have a certain altitude areas are environmental risk factors that support transmission of malaria.
Dominant transmission of malaria is influenced by the altitude / height. 4. Malaria Cases Spatial tendency.
The trend / trend of spatial distribution of malaria cases is the result / output processing and analysis of spatial data with GIS provides an overview of the trend of malaria cases on the geographical location or the characteristics of a particular region.
3. Spatial Epidemiology of Malaria Cases patterns.
Utilization of GIS application in analyzing spatial patterns of malaria aims to determine the boundaries of regions where there is a trend / tendency of the distribution of malaria cases, and predicted geographic access to residential health care unit / location of cases of malaria.
Enhance coping strategies, especially in areas of high malaria incidence rates by geographic characteristics that support the spread of malaria.
4. Utilizing GIS technology to map the cases of malaria, malaria breeding sites and the various aspects associated with an increase in malaria cases incidence.
The role of epidemiology as a tool to determine the distribution of disease is now no longer confined to infectious diseases such as the phase of its development. The occurrence of various transitions in science including epidemiology, from infectious diseases to non-infectious diseases (non-communicable disease), from the life of an agrarian culture to a culture of information, from a large family structure into a small family, from office work patterns become more flexible, giving the consequences of the changing patterns disease in the community. Departure from these conditions the dynamics of information about health issues will continue to change, including the risk factors for disease, so the role of epidemiology will always occupy a strategic role in solving health problems in the community.

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