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Anemia iron deficiency

September 5, 2011

Anemia iron deficiency

Anemia is a condition of decreased levels of hemoglobin, hematocrit and erythrocyte number below normal value. In people with anemia, more often called anemia, red blood cell levels (hemoglobin or Hb) below the normal value. The reason could be due to a lack of nutrients for the formation of blood, such as iron, folic acid and vitamin B12. But what often happens is besi. Anemia Iron deficiency is caused by a lack of iron in the body, so the need for iron (Fe) for eritropoesis not enough, which is marked with a picture of a red blood cell-mikrositer hipokrom, iron levels serum (Serum Iron = SI) and transferrin saturation decreased, total iron bind capacity (Total Iron Binding Capacity / TIBC) and elevated iron stores in bone marrow and other places very less or no sekali.4Banyak factors that may cause anemia iron deficiency, among others, lack of iron and protein intake from the diet, the intestines and absorption disorders, acute or chronic bleeding, and increased need for iron such as pregnant women, the growth period, and recovering from illness.

Iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy
Iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women is a health problem experienced by women around the world especially in developing countries. World Health Organization (World Health Organization / WHO) reported that the prevalence of pregnant mothers who had iron deficiency approximately 35-75% and increased along with gestational age pertambah. According to WHO 40% of maternal deaths in developing countries related to anemia in pregnancy and most of anemia in pregnancy caused by iron deficiency and acute bleeding, not even they rarely interact.

1. Pathophysiology of anemia in pregnancy.
Hematological changes in connection with pregnancy is due to changes in circulation which increased towards the placenta from the breast growth. Plasma volume increased 45-65% starting in the second trimester of pregnancy, and the maximum occurs at month 9 and rising about 1000 ml, declining slightly towards the aterem and returned to normal 3 months after parturition. Stimulation increases the volume of plasma such as placental lactogen, which causes increased secretion aldesteron.

2. Etiolog
The etiology of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy, ie
a. Hypervolemia, causing blood dilution
b. Added blood is not proportional to the accretion of plasma
c. Lack of iron in makanan.d. Iron requirement increases.

Clinical symptoms

Wintrobe suggests that the clinical manifestations of iron deficiency anemia is highly variable, can be almost without symptoms, can also be symptoms of the disease is essentially a stand, or can be found symptoms of anemia with symptoms of basic diseases. Symptoms may include headaches, palpitations, dizzy, nail changes in epithelial tissue, neurumuskular system disorders, lethargy, weakness, fatigue, and enlarged lymph glands disphagia.

It is generally agreed that if hemoglobin <7 g / dl then the symptoms and signs of anemia will jelas.4Nilai threshold used to determine anemia status of pregnant women, based on WHO 1972 criteria set out in three categories, namely Normal (≥ 11 g / dl), mild anemia (8-11 g / dl), and severe anemia (less than 8 g / dl). Based on the results of blood tests turned out to an average hemoglobin level of pregnant women is at 11:28 mg / dl, the lowest hemoglobin level 7.63 mg / dl and highest mg/dl.3 14:00.

Impact of iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women

Anemia in pregnant women is not without risk. According to the study, the high maternal mortality rate is closely related to anemia. Anemia is also caused low physical ability because the body’s cells do not receive enough oxygen supply. In pregnant women, anemia increases the frequency of complications in pregnancy and childbirth. The risk of maternal mortality, the rate of prematurity, low birth weight babies, and perinatal mortality increased. In addition, antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage is more common in women who anemis and more often fatal, because anemis women who can not tolerate blood loss.

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