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Anemia during pregnancy

September 6, 2011

Anemia during pregnancy

In pregnant women, anemia increases the frequency of complications in pregnancy and childbirth. The risk of maternal mortality, the rate of prematurity, low birth weight babies, and perinatal mortality increased.

In addition, antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage is more common in women who anemis and more often fatal, because the woman who can not tolerate losing anemis darah.9 Soeprono.10 mention that the impact of anemia in pregnancy varies from very mild to complaints of interference viability abortion pregnancy, parturition immature / premature), labor disruption (inertia, atonia, parturition time, atonis bleeding), disorders of the puerperium (subinvolution uterus, resistance to infection and less stress, low milk production), and disorders of the fetus (abortion, dismaturitas, mikrosomi, low birth weight, perinatal death, and others)

Prevalence of Anemia during pregnancy ranges from 20-80%, but in general, many studies showing the prevalence of Anemia during pregnancy greater than 50%. Also widely reported that the prevalence of anemia in third trimester ranges from 50-79% .11 Affandi 12 mentions that the anemia of pregnancy in Indonesia based on data from the Ministry of Health in 1990 was 60%. Research during the years 1978-1980 in 12 teaching hospitals / referral in Indonesia show the prevalence of pregnant women with anemia who gave birth in hospital education / referral is 30.86%. Prevalence increased with increasing paritas.9 The same result is obtained from the 1986 Household Health Survey in which the prevalence of mild anemia and weight will be higher with increasing paritas.13 World Health Organization (WHO) reported that the prevalence of anemia in pregnancy globally 55% which was significantly higher in the third trimester compared with the first and second trimesters kehamilan.

Anemia due to iron deficiency is a major cause of Anemia during pregnancy compared with the deficiencies of other nutrients. Therefore, nutritional anemia during pregnancy is often associated with anemia iron nutrition This is also expressed by Simanjuntak 1992 that about 70% of pregnant women in Indonesia suffer from nutritional anemia.

High prevalence of anemia that can bring negative consequences such as: 1) disturbance and obstacles to growth, both cell body and brain cells, 2) Lack of hemoglobin in the blood resulting in a lack of oxygen carried / transferred to the cell body and the brain. In pregnant women may result in adverse effects on the mother’s own or the baby is born. Studies in Kuala Lumpur showed the occurrence of 20% of premature births for women whose level of hemoglobin levels below 6.5 g / dl. Another study showed that the incidence risk of LBW, preterm birth and perinatal mortality is increased in pregnant women with hemoglobin levels less than 10.4 g / dl. At the age of a pregnancy before 24 weeks compared to controls suggests that anemia is one factor with high-risk pregnancies.

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